First Class Functions

In this part, we will discuss a topic that I think distinguishes those who only use JavaScript, and those who understand how JavaScript under the hood works. This idea is called First Class Functions. In JavaScript Functions ARE Objects.

First Class Functions mean that in a programming language (JavaScript is not the only one, but certainly the most popular one), all that we can do with other types, objects, strings etc can be done with a function. You can assign them to variables, pass them around, create them on the fly.

Many people who have previously had contact with programming in a different language, are suprised that you can attach to a function an object, a function or a primitive. This is what we get thanks to a functions being objects.
In JavaScript, functions have hidden special properties and two quite important

  1. Name, in the JavaScript function does not have to have a name, it can be anonymous.
  2. Code, code in the function object is really a property.

So what does it look like?

Note that in the fifth line, we did something that we could not in many other languages. We added a property to the function.
This is not a mistake. To prove it, just look at what we received thanks to console.log.

Function Expressions / Function Statements


Is a unit of code with a value that has to be saved in a variable.
The function below is an anonymous function (a function without a name).
Functions stored in variables do not need function names. They are always invoked (called) using the variable name.


The function statement declares a function.
A declared function is "saved for later use", and will be executed later, when it is invoked (called)
Function Statements are hoisted into memory.

Next Post

I will talk about two concepts. By value and by reference.